Uniformed Services U. of the Health Sciences scored a “D” on the University Global Health Impact Guide. Learn why and see how other schools compare.

                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                                               

Uniformed Services U. of the Health Sciences

Total

Grand Total Score: 23.5 (out of XXX?) Grand Total Grade: D

Innovation

Total Score: 14
Grade: C-

Global Health Research

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Why does this matter?

NIH’s Fogarty International Center provides grants for global health-focused research, education and training programs. For Gates this included global health grants listed under global development or global policy, advocacy, and country programs as well as the global health program. Receipt of these grants is a strong indicator of a university's commitment in these areas.

Where does the data come from?

Public Datasets were collected from the NIH RePorter database (narrowed to Fogarty International Center grants), and Gates Foundation online grant data (narrowed to global health focused grants). We searched by university for total funding received in FY 2013 and 2014 from the NIH Fogarty International Center (FIC) and from Gates specifically for global health.

How can universities improve?

Seek increased Fogarty International Center or Gates Foundation funding by developing innovative and effective global health initiatives.

Q

What is the university's total biomedical research funding received from Fogarty International Center grants or Gates Foundation grants for global health research, training and collaboration?

A
0.00%
0 (out of 5)
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Why does this matter?

As nonprofit, social-good institutions conducting publicly-funded research, universities can and should live up to their social missions by leading research into diseases that primarily affect the world's poor and that are neglected by the current for-profit biomedical research model.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, we calculated an index score based on total grant funding received for research on neglected diseases in FY2013 as reported in G-FINDER reports for this year (numerator), and the total combined funding reported by the NIH and Gates Foundation for this year (denominator). The G-FINDER report is considered the most comprehensive and authoritative database of neglected disease grants, and includes funding for Neglected Diseases from 100 sources, including government, industry, and philanthropic foundations.

How can universities improve?

Universities can make strives to direct at least 10% of health research resources towards neglected diseases. More grants aren’t the only way; universities can also recruit more faculty and students who specialize in these diseases, ensure they receive adequate training and support, and urge funders to increase overall investment in this area.

Q

What percentage of the university's total biomedical research funding received from Fogarty International Center grants or Gates Foundation grants is devoted to projects focused on neglected diseases?

A
0.11%
4 (out of 20)

Global Health Publications

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Why does this matter?

On average, approximately 2% of total medical PubMed publications at the to 59 universities have a global health focus, and three-quarters of those have a neglected disease focus and three-quarters of those have a neglected disease focus.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, the total number of citations specific to global health and/or affiliated with a university’s department of global health was tabulated as reported through PubMed. A comprehensive search query (see methodology for full details) was created to acquire a broad perspective on scientific and non-scientific research pertaining to global health within a university from the period between January, 2010 and August 2014. The number of publications associated with each university was delineated using PubMed’s filter option, and an aggregate number of global health research publications was obtained for each university. To normalize across universities, this number was divided by a total number of publications for each institution within this same time period.

How can universities improve?

The focus of university publications is an important indicator of the university’s key research interests. 2% shows a low level of output in global health research and we can consequently assume a low level of actual research taking place through the university community as compared with other areas of interest.Universities can improve by increasing the number of researchers who work in the area of global health, on neglected diseases and also in other areas aside from neglected diseases

Q

What percentage of the university's total medical PubMed publications is focused on global health?

A
5.97%
2 (out of 2.5)

Publications on Neglected Diseases

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Why does this matter?

On average, approximately 2% of total medical PubMed publications at the to 59 universities have a global health focus, and three-quarters of those have a neglected disease focus and three-quarters of those have a neglected disease focus.

Where does the data come from?

For each institution, the total number of citations specific to neglected diseases was tabulated as reported through PubMed. A comprehensive search query was created to encompass these diseases and their associated areas of research from the period between January, 2010 and August 2014. The number of publications associated with each university was delineated through PubMed’s filter option, and an aggregate number of neglected disease specific research publications was obtained for each university. To normalize across universities, this number was divided by a total number of publications for each institution within this same time period. For a complete list of included search terms, see the methodology.

How can universities improve?

PART 3 OF TOOLTIP

Q

What percentage of the university’s total medical PubMed publications is focused on neglected diseases, neglected aspects of HIV, TB, malaria, and/or access to medicines in lower to middle income countries?

A
5.97%
6 (out of 7.5)

Dedicated Research Centers

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Why does this matter?

Having a major lab, center or other facility focused specifically on neglected disease research demonstrates a strong university commitment to closing the research gap for these diseases.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to universities verified/supplemented by Web search of public data

How can universities improve?

Establish a major center or initiative focused specifically on researching neglected diseases and neglected global health needs.

Q

Does the university have a research center or institute dedicated specifically to neglected diseases?

A
An HIV/AIDS center
2 (out of 5)

Access

Total Score: 1.5
Grade: F

Commitment to Health Access & Transparency

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Why does this matter?

Everyone has a stake in university health research - from people living with neglected diseases to those not yet diagnosed; to medical professionals and students, and the general public that funds much of this work. Universities should disclose whether they use socially responsible licenses that promote affordability and access for all.

Where does the data come from?

Investigators obtained information from lists of university signatories to collective global access statements such as the “Statement of Principles and Strategies for the Equitable Dissemination of Medical Technologies” or the “Stanford Nine Points”. Next, investigators used a standardized online survey instrument to systematically collect data specific to each university. A standardized data collection tool was used to review the Website of each university TTO.

How can universities improve?

Disclose information about socially responsible licensing commitments and practices on the website of the university's technology transfer office.

Q

Has the university officially and publicly committed to licensing its medical discoveries in ways that promote access and affordability in lower and middle income countries?

A
The university has made no official public commitment to access licensing.
0 (out of 12.5)
Q

Does the website of the university’s technology transfer office (TTO) make an effort to disclose, explain and promote access licensing commitments and practices?

A
The website makes no reference to promoting global access through socially responsible licensing.
0 (out of 2.5)

Open Access Publications

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Why does this matter?

Open access publication enables equal sharing of scholarly knowledge across geographical and financial barriers. If everyone has access to the latest biomedical findings, there is increased opportunity for individuals to innovate, further they can be empowered to make important health care decisions for themselves and their loved ones based on access to this information.

Where does the data come from?

To determine the total medical sciences publications output (denominator) for a given university in the time period 2010-August 2014, a search of the PubMed database was performed using search terms encompassing all the institutes conducting biomedical research affiliated with the university (including hospitals and independent research institutes, as well as the main campus). To estimate the total medical sciences output published with open access provisions (numerator) from the period between January 2010 and August 2014, a search of PubMedCentral was performed as above. The number of open-access publications for each university was then divided by the number of total publications to determine a percentage for each institution.

How can universities improve?

Increase the number of open access publications.

Q

What percentage of the university's total medical sciences publication output is published in open-access publications?

A
36.53%
1.5 (out of 2.5)

Non-exclusive Licensing

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Why does this matter?

When universities share their research innovations under open or “non-exclusive” licenses, no single company gets a monopoly. Instead, many developers can license the innovation and work collaboratively or competitively to bring it to market, lowering the cost of drug development and the price of the final product.

Where does the data come from?

Part A: Association of University Technology Managers Licensing Activity Survey (2011); Part B: Questionnaire to university technology transfer offices

How can universities improve?

Prioritize open, non-exclusive licensing of university technologies to promote competitive development and affordable end products.

Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s total research licenses were non-exclusive?

A
??
0 (out of 5)
Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s health technology licenses were non-exclusive?

A
No Response
0 (out of 5)

Patents in lower to middle income countries

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Why does this matter?

When a medical research innovation is patented in a certain country, no one there is allowed develop products from it without a license from the patent holder. Patents in low and middle countries may block locally-produced, affordable versions of new medicines.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university technology transfer offices

How can universities improve?

Refrain from seeking patents or “file and abandon” patents in low- and middle-income countries, leaving generic drug makers there free to produce low-cost versions of medicines developed from the university's research.

Q

In the past year, for what percentage of all health technologies did the university seek patents in lower to middle income countries where they may restrict access?

Q

Brazil, Russia, India, China, or South Africa

A
No Response
0 (out of 1.25)
Q

All other Lower and Lower-Middle Income Countries

A
No Response
0 (out of 1.25)

Access to Innovations

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Why does this matter?

Drug companies often pay universities for an “exclusive license” that gives them monopoly rights over a university medical innovation. This can lead to very expensive end products - but universities can include “global access” licensing provisions to make the resulting medicines affordable in developing countries.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to TTOs at institutions of interest. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via e-mail.

How can universities improve?

Include global access provisions in 100% of exclusive licenses for university technologies. A list of sample provisions is available here

Q

In the past year, what percentage of the university’s exclusive licenses of health technologies included provisions to promote access to those technologies in low and middle income countries?

A
No Response
0 (out of 5)
Q

What percentage of those access provisions included the biggest developing-world economies (Brazil, Russia, India, China or South Africa) in their scope?

A
No Response
0 (out of 2.5)

Best Practice Sharing

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Why does this matter?

Universities face common challenges in seeking to license medical technologies in globally accessible ways. Collaboration is essential to success.

Where does the data come from?

An online survey instrument was emailed to TTOs at institutions of interest. For non-responding institutions, at least two follow-up requests were sent via e-mail.

How can universities improve?

Share best practices and know-how through events, publications, trainings and interactions.

Q

Has the university shared its best practices for promoting access to treatment through licensing?

A
No Response
0 (out of 2.5)

Empowerment

Total Score: 8
Grade: D+

Global Health Programs

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Why does this matter?

Emerging leaders in medicine, law and related fields must have the opportunity to learn about the pressing challenges in global health, neglected disease research and access to medicines.

Where does the data come from?

Questionnaire to university medical school, law school, and public health school administrators, supplemented by Web search of publicly-available data

How can universities improve?

Offer dedicated global health centers, programs, majors and/or study tracks in medical, law and public health schools.

Q

Does the university offer its students access to global health engagement and/or education?

Q

As indicated by the existence of a university center/institute, department, and/or non-degree program in global health.

A
Department
1 (out of 2.5)
Q

As indicated by the existence of a university graduate degree, major/concentration, focus/specialization, certificate, and/or other academic track in global health.

A
Graduate Focus/Specialization; Graduate Major/Concentration
2 (out of 2.5)

Education Opportunities on Global Access Principles

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Why does this matter?

Effective global health programs focus not only on challenges in low and middle countries, but educate students about universities' role in promoting access to medicines through global access licensing.

Where does the data come from?

Initial data was collected through a survey questionnaire that was emailed to appropriate deans or other administrators within the schools of medicine, public health, and/or law. Following the initial email, we made two additional e-mail attempts to follow up with universities that do not respond. After this initial round of data collection, 2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a web search of university course catalogues using a standardized online survey instrument, in order to verify the self-reported university responses, as well as to identify relevant course offerings at non-responding institutions.

How can universities improve?

Provide courses on the role of unviersity patenting, licensing and technology transfer in global health and how these policies impact global pricing and accessibility of medical innovations.

Q

Does the university's medical school/residency program, public school, and/or law school offer graduate courses that address the policy and legal context of biomedical R&D, and more specifically the impact of intellectual property policies on research priorities and global access to medical innovations?

A
1 course on the policy and legal context of biomedical R&D
1 (out of 5)

Neglected Disease Education

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Why does this matter?

One of the most straightforward ways to close the gap in neglected disease research is by educating and empowering young doctors and researchers to focus in this area.

Where does the data come from?

Initial data was collected through a survey questionnaire that was emailed to appropriate deans or other administrators within the schools of medicine, public health, and/or law. Each contact received at least two follow-up emails. After this initial round of data collection, multiple investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a web search of university course catalogues using a standardized online survey instrument, in order to verify the self-reported university responses, as well as to identify relevant course offerings at non-responding institutions.

How can universities improve?

Provide courses that specifically educate students about the burden of neglected diseases including neglected aspects of HIV TB and Malaria of and the need for increased research.

Q

Does the university's medical school/residency program, public health school, and/or law school offer graduate courses that address the prevalence of and/or lack of research on neglected diseases, including neglected aspects of HIV, TB, and/or malaria?

A
7 courses that address the prevalence of and/or lack of research on neglected diseases, including neglected aspects of HIV, TB, and/or malaria with at least 1 course on one or more specific NDs
4 (out of 5)

Conference and Workshops

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Why does this matter?

Sponsorship of events focused specifically on universities' role in neglected areas of global health research and the impact of intellectual property on access to medicines is another important way to foster crucial student understanding and interest in this area.

Where does the data come from?

2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a review of university-hosted events using a standardized web search protocol to identify events related to topic A - impact of intellectual property on global access to medicines and/or B - neglected diseases and health needs of developing countries?

How can universities improve?

Host or sponsor conferences, symposia and other campus events that focus specifically on neglected disease research and licensing that ensures equitable access to medicines for all

Q

Has the university hosted a conference, symposium or campus-wide event in the last 12 months on the topics A) impact of intellectual property on global access to medicines or B) neglected diseases and health needs of developing countries?

A
No events found on the impact of IP on global access to medicines and/or neglected diseases
0 (out of 2.5)

Educational Opportunities Abroad

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Why does this matter?

It is important that universities provide students the opportunity to witness the reality of living and working and researching in resource poor or alternate settings so as to increase their understanding and awareness of real world problems outside the comfort and ample resources of their own schools. These experiences can often shape the worldview of students.

Where does the data come from?

2 to 3 investigators, working independently and in parallel, performed a review of university global health opportunities abroad using a standardized web search protocol to identify opportunities.

How can universities improve?

By increasing the number of opportunities for students to study work or complete research is areas of global health.

Q

Does the university offer any of its students accessible opportunities to study, work, or complete research abroad in global health?

A
No global health funding or study abroad opportunities
0 (out of 2.5)